Home > Formulas > Formula List ## Excel Functions Reference List & VideosFind the Excel function you need in the interactive list below. Also, watch short Excel function videos, and find popular Excel function tutorials, here on the Contextures site. |

## 7 Ways to Sum in ExcelThe first Excel calculation that most people try is adding two or more numbers with the SUM function. After you have that skill mastered, you're ready to discover some of the other ways you can add things up in Excel. For a quick overview of 7 different ways to sum numbers with Excel functions, you can watch this 9-minute video. There are written steps and more videos on the How to Sum in Excel page, along with sample files to download for Excel skills practice.. |

## 7 Ways to Count in ExcelAnother key calculation in Excel is counting things. For example, do you need to count numbers only, or do you want to count any type of data? How can you count things based on one or more criteria? To see a quick overview of 7 ways to get a total count of cells in Excel, watch this short video. There are written steps and more videos on the How to Count in Excel page, along with sample files to download for Excel skills practice. |

## Excel Lookup FunctionsWhen you have to do a lookup in Excel, such as finding the price for a product, which is the best lookup function to use in Microsoft Excel? If you're not sure, head to the Excel Lookup Functions Comparison page, to see an overview, and get advice. There are notes on these functions: XLOOKUP, VLOOKUP, HLOOKUP, LOOKUP, INDEX, MATCH, and OFFSET For example, this video shows how to make a VLOOKUP formula that finds a product price. The written steps are on the Excel VLOOKUP Examples page, along with other videos, examples, and Excel files to download. |

Function |
Category |
Description |
---|---|---|

ABS | Math Trig | Returns the absolute value of a number |

ACCRINT | Financial | Returns the accrued interest for a security that pays periodic interest |

ACCRINTM | Financial | Returns the accrued interest for a security that pays interest at maturity |

ACOS | Math Trig | Returns the arccosine of a number |

ACOSH | Math Trig | Returns the inverse hyperbolic cosine of a number |

ACOT | Math Trig | Returns the arccotangent of a number |

ACOTH | Math Trig | Returns the hyperbolic arccotangent of a number |

ADDRESS | Lookup Ref | Returns a reference as text to a single cell in a worksheet |

AGGREGATE | Math Trig | Returns an aggregate in a list or database |

AMORDEGRC | Financial | Returns the depreciation for each accounting period by using a depreciation coefficient |

AMORLINC | Financial | Returns the depreciation for each accounting period |

AND | Logical | Returns TRUE if all of its arguments are TRUE |

ARABIC | Math Trig | Converts a Roman number to Arabic, as a number |

AREAS | Lookup Ref | Returns the number of areas in a reference |

ARRAYTOTEXT | Text | Returns an array of text values from any specified range |

ASC | Text | Changes full-width (double-byte) English letters or katakana within a character string to half-width (single-byte) characters |

ASIN | Math Trig | Returns the arcsine of a number |

ASINH | Math Trig | Returns the inverse hyperbolic sine of a number |

ATAN | Math Trig | Returns the arctangent of a number |

ATAN2 | Math Trig | Returns the arctangent from x- and y-coordinates |

ATANH | Math Trig | Returns the inverse hyperbolic tangent of a number |

AVEDEV | Statistical | Returns the average of the absolute deviations of data points from their mean |

AVERAGE | Statistical | Returns the average of its arguments |

AVERAGEA | Statistical | Returns the average of its arguments, including numbers, text, and logical values |

AVERAGEIF | Statistical | Returns the average (arithmetic mean) of all the cells in a range that meet a given criteria |

AVERAGEIFS | Statistical | Returns the average (arithmetic mean) of all cells that meet multiple criteria. |

BAHTTEXT | Text | Converts a number to text, using the ß (baht) currency format |

BASE | Math Trig | Converts a number into a text representation with the given radix (base) |

BESSELI | Eng | Returns the modified Bessel function In(x) |

BESSELJ | Eng | Returns the Bessel function Jn(x) |

BESSELK | Eng | Returns the modified Bessel function Kn(x) |

BESSELY | Eng | Returns the Bessel function Yn(x) |

BETA.DIST | Statistical | Returns the beta cumulative distribution function |

BETA.INV | Statistical | Returns the inverse of the cumulative distribution function for a specified beta distribution |

BETADIST | Compatibility | Returns the beta cumulative distribution function |

BETAINV | Compatibility | Returns the inverse of the cumulative distribution function for a specified beta distribution |

BIN2DEC | Eng | Converts a binary number to decimal |

BIN2HEX | Eng | Converts a binary number to hexadecimal |

BIN2OCT | Eng | Converts a binary number to octal |

BINOM.DIST | Statistical | Returns the individual term binomial distribution probability |

BINOM.DIST.RANGE | Statistical | Returns the probability of a trial result using a binomial distribution |

BINOM.INV | Statistical | Returns the smallest value for which the cumulative binomial distribution is less than or equal to a criterion value |

BINOMDIST | Compatibility | Returns the individual term binomial distribution probability |

BITAND | Eng | Returns a 'Bitwise And' of two numbers |

BITLSHIFT | Eng | Returns a value number shifted left by shift_amount bits |

BITOR | Eng | Returns a bitwise OR of 2 numbers |

BITRSHIFT | Eng | Returns a value number shifted right by shift_amount bits |

BITXOR | Eng | Returns a bitwise 'Exclusive Or' of two numbers |

BYCOL | Logical | Applies a LAMBDA to each column and returns an array of the results |

BYROW | Logical | Applies a LAMBDA to each row and returns an array of the results |

CALL | Add-in and Automation | Calls a procedure in a dynamic link library or code resource |

CEILING | Compatibility | Rounds a number to the nearest integer or to the nearest multiple of significance |

CEILING.MATH | Math Trig | Rounds a number up, to the nearest integer or to the nearest multiple of significance |

CEILING.PRECISE | Math Trig | Rounds a number the nearest integer or to the nearest multiple of significance. Regardless of the sign of the number, the number is rounded up. |

CELL | Information | Returns Info about the formatting, location, or contents of a cell |

CHAR | Text | Returns the character specified by the code number |

CHIDIST | Compatibility | Returns the one-tailed probability of the chi-squared distribution |

CHIINV | Compatibility | Returns the inverse of the one-tailed probability of the chi-squared distribution |

CHISQ.DIST | Statistical | Returns the cumulative beta probability density function |

CHISQ.DIST.RT | Statistical | Returns the one-tailed probability of the chi-squared distribution |

CHISQ.INV | Statistical | Returns the cumulative beta probability density function |

CHISQ.INV.RT | Statistical | Returns the inverse of the one-tailed probability of the chi-squared distribution |

CHISQ.TEST | Statistical | Returns the test for independence |

CHITEST | Compatibility | Returns the test for independence |

CHOOSE | Lookup Ref | Chooses a value from a list of values |

CHOOSECOLS | Lookup Ref | Returns the specified columns from an array |

CHOOSEROWS | Lookup Ref | Returns the specified rows from an array |

CLEAN | Text | Removes all nonprintable characters from text |

CODE | Text | Returns a numeric code for the first character in a text string |

COLUMN | Lookup Ref | Returns the column number of a reference |

COLUMNS | Lookup Ref | Returns the number of columns in a reference |

COMBIN | Math Trig | Returns the number of combinations for a given number of objects |

COMBINA | Math Trig | Returns the number of combinations with repetitions for a given number of items |

COMPLEX | Eng | Converts real and imaginary coefficients into a complex number |

CONCAT | Text | Combines the text from multiple ranges and/or strings, but it doesn't provide the delimiter or IgnoreEmpty arguments. |

CONCATENATE | Text | Joins several text items into one text item |

CONFIDENCE | Compatibility | Returns the confidence interval for a population mean |

CONFIDENCE.NORM | Statistical | Returns the confidence interval for a population mean |

CONFIDENCE.T | Statistical | Returns the confidence interval for a population mean, using a Student's t distribution |

CONVERT | Eng | Converts a number from one measurement system to another |

CORREL | Statistical | Returns the correlation coefficient between two data sets |

COS | Math Trig | Returns the cosine of a number |

COSH | Math Trig | Returns the hyperbolic cosine of a number |

COT | Math Trig | Returns the hyperbolic cosine of a number |

COTH | Math Trig | Returns the cotangent of an angle |

COUNT | Statistical | Counts how many numbers are in the list of arguments |

COUNTA | Statistical | Counts how many values are in the list of arguments |

COUNTBLANK | Statistical | Counts the number of blank cells within a range |

COUNTIF | Statistical | Counts the number of cells within a range that meet the given criteria |

COUNTIFS | Statistical | Counts the number of cells within a range that meet multiple criteria |

COUPDAYBS | Financial | Returns the number of days from the beginning of the coupon period to the settlement date |

COUPDAYS | Financial | Returns the number of days in the coupon period that contains the settlement date |

COUPDAYSNC | Financial | Returns the number of days from the settlement date to the next coupon date |

COUPNCD | Financial | Returns the next coupon date after the settlement date |

COUPNUM | Financial | Returns the number of coupons payable between the settlement date and maturity date |

COUPPCD | Financial | Returns the previous coupon date before the settlement date |

COVAR | Compatibility | Returns covariance, the average of the products of paired deviations |

COVARIANCE.P | Statistical | Returns covariance, the average of the products of paired deviations |

COVARIANCE.S | Statistical | Returns the sample covariance, the average of the products deviations for each data point pair in two data sets |

CRITBINOM | Compatibility | Available for backward compatibility. For new function, see BINOM.INV function |

CSC | Math Trig | Returns the cosecant of an angle |

CSCH | Math Trig | Returns the hyperbolic cosecant of an angle |

CUBEKPIMEMBER | Cube | Returns a key performance indicator (KPI) name, property, and measure, and displays the name and property in the cell. A KPI is a quantifiable measurement, such as monthly gross profit or quarterly employee turnover, used to monitor an organization's performance. |

CUBEMEMBER | Cube | Returns a member or tuple in a cube hierarchy. Use to validate that the member or tuple exists in the cube. |

CUBEMEMBERPROPERTY | Cube | Returns the value of a member property in the cube. Use to validate that a member name exists within the cube and to return the specified property for this member. |

CUBERANKEDMEMBER | Cube | Returns the nth, or ranked, member in a set. Use to return one or more elements in a set, such as the top sales performer or top 10 students. |

CUBESET | Cube | Defines a calculated set of members or tuples by sending a set expression to the cube on the server, which creates the set, and then returns that set to Microsoft Office Excel. |

CUBESETCOUNT | Cube | Returns the number of items in a set. |

CUBEVALUE | Cube | Returns an aggregated value from a cube. |

CUMIPMT | Financial | Returns the cumulative interest paid between two periods |

CUMPRINC | Financial | Returns the cumulative principal paid on a loan between two periods |

DATE | Date and time | Returns the serial number of a particular date |

DATEDIF | Date and time | Calculates the number of days, months, or years between two dates. This function is useful in formulas where you need to calculate an age. |

DATEVALUE | Date and time | Converts a date in the form of text to a serial number |

DAVERAGE | Database | Returns the average of selected database entries |

DAY | Date and time | Converts a serial number to a day of the month |

DAYS | Date and time | Returns the number of days between two dates |

DAYS360 | Date and time | Calculates the number of days between two dates based on a 360-day year |

DB | Financial | Returns the depreciation of an asset for a specified period by using the fixed-declining balance method |

DBCS | Text | Changes half-width (single-byte) English letters or katakana within a character string to full-width (double-byte) characters |

DCOUNT | Database | Counts the cells that contain numbers in a database |

DCOUNTA | Database | Counts nonblank cells in a database |

DDB | Financial | Returns the depreciation of an asset for a specified period by using the double-declining balance method or some other method that you specify |

DEC2BIN | Eng | Converts a decimal number to binary |

DEC2HEX | Eng | Converts a decimal number to hexadecimal |

DEC2OCT | Eng | Converts a decimal number to octal |

DECIMAL | Math Trig | Converts a text representation of a number in a given base into a decimal number |

DEGREES | Math Trig | Converts radians to degrees |

DELTA | Eng | Tests whether two values are equal |

DEVSQ | Statistical | Returns the sum of squares of deviations |

DGET | Database | Extracts from a database a single record that matches the specified criteria |

DISC | Financial | Returns the discount rate for a security |

DMAX | Database | Returns the maximum value from selected database entries |

DMIN | Database | Returns the minimum value from selected database entries |

DOLLAR | Text | Converts a number to text, using the $ (dollar) currency format |

DOLLARDE | Financial | Converts a dollar price, expressed as a fraction, into a dollar price, expressed as a decimal number |

DOLLARFR | Financial | Converts a dollar price, expressed as a decimal number, into a dollar price, expressed as a fraction |

DPRODUCT | Database | Multiplies the values in a particular field of records that match the criteria in a database |

DROP | Lookup Ref | Excludes a specified number of rows or columns from the start or end of an array |

DSTDEV | Database | Estimates the standard deviation based on a sample of selected database entries |

DSTDEVP | Database | Calculates the standard deviation based on the entire population of selected database entries |

DSUM | Database | Adds the numbers in the field column of records in the database that match the criteria |

DURATION | Financial | Returns the annual duration of a security with periodic interest payments |

DVAR | Database | Estimates variance based on a sample from selected database entries |

DVARP | Database | Calculates variance based on the entire population of selected database entries |

EDATE | Date and time | Returns the serial number of the date that is the indicated number of months before or after the start date |

EFFECT | Financial | Returns the effective annual interest rate |

ENCODEURL | Web | Returns a URL-encoded string |

EOMONTH | Date and time | Returns the serial number of the last day of the month before or after a specified number of months |

ERF | Eng | Returns the error function |

ERF.PRECISE | Eng | Returns the error function |

ERFC | Eng | Returns the complementary error function |

ERFC.PRECISE | Eng | Returns the complementary ERF function integrated between x and infinity |

ERROR.TYPE | Information | Returns a number corresponding to an error type |

EUROCONVERT | Add-in and Automation | Converts a number to euros, converts a number from euros to a euro member currency, or converts a number from one euro member currency to another by using the euro as an intermediary (triangulation). |

EVEN | Math Trig | Rounds a number up to the nearest even integer |

EXACT | Text | Checks to see if two text values are identical |

EXP | Math Trig | Returns e raised to the power of a given number |

EXPAND | Lookup Ref | Expands or pads an array to specified row and column dimensions |

EXPON.DIST | Statistical | Returns the exponential distribution |

EXPONDIST | Compatibility | Returns the exponential distribution |

F.DIST | Statistical | Returns the F probability distribution |

F.DIST.RT | Statistical | Returns the F probability distribution |

F.INV | Statistical | Returns the inverse of the F probability distribution |

F.INV.RT | Statistical | Returns the inverse of the F probability distribution |

F.TEST | Statistical | Returns the result of an F-test |

FACT | Math Trig | Returns the factorial of a number |

FACTDOUBLE | Math Trig | Returns the double factorial of a number |

FALSE | Logical | Returns the logical value FALSE |

FDIST | Compatibility | Returns the F probability distribution |

FILTER | Lookup Ref | Filters a range of data based on criteria you define |

FILTERXML | Web | Returns specific data from the XML content by using the specified XPath |

FIND, FINDB | Text | Finds one text value within another (case-sensitive) |

FINV | Compatibility | Returns the inverse of the F probability distribution |

FISHER | Statistical | Returns the Fisher transformation |

FISHERINV | Statistical | Returns the inverse of the Fisher transformation |

FIXED | Text | Formats a number as text with a fixed number of decimals |

FLOOR | Compatibility | Rounds a number down, toward zero |

FLOOR.MATH | Math Trig | Rounds a number down, to the nearest integer or to the nearest multiple of significance |

FLOOR.PRECISE | Math Trig | Rounds a number the nearest integer or to the nearest multiple of significance. Regardless of the sign of the number, the number is rounded up. |

FORECAST | Statistical | Returns a value along a linear trend |

FORECAST.ETS | Statistical | Returns a future value based on existing (historical) values by using the AAA version of the Exponential Smoothing (ETS) algorithm |

FORECAST.ETS.CONFINT | Statistical | Returns a confidence interval for the forecast value at the specified target date |

FORECAST.ETS. SEASONALITY | Statistical | Returns the length of the repetitive pattern Excel detects for the specified time series |

FORECAST.ETS.STAT | Statistical | Returns a statistical value as a result of time series forecasting |

FORECAST.LINEAR | Statistical | Returns a future value based on existing values |

FORMULATEXT | Lookup Ref | Returns the formula at the given reference as text |

FREQUENCY | Statistical | Returns a frequency distribution as a vertical array |

FTEST | Compatibility | Returns the result of an F-test |

FV | Financial | Returns the future value of an investment |

FVSCHEDULE | Financial | Returns the future value of an initial principal after applying a series of compound interest rates |

GAMMA | Statistical | Returns the Gamma function value |

GAMMA.DIST | Statistical | Returns the gamma distribution |

GAMMA.INV | Statistical | Returns the inverse of the gamma cumulative distribution |

GAMMADIST | Compatibility | Returns the gamma distribution |

GAMMAINV | Compatibility | Returns the inverse of the gamma cumulative distribution |

GAMMALN | Statistical | Returns the natural logarithm of the gamma function, Γ(x) |

GAMMALN.PRECISE | Statistical | Returns the natural logarithm of the gamma function, ?(x) |

GAUSS | Statistical | Returns 0.5 less than the standard normal cumulative distribution |

GCD | Math Trig | Returns the greatest common divisor |

GEOMEAN | Statistical | Returns the geometric mean |

GESTEP | Eng | Tests whether a number is greater than a threshold value |

GETPIVOTDATA | Lookup Ref | Returns data stored in a PivotTable report |

GROWTH | Statistical | Returns values along an exponential trend |

HARMEAN | Statistical | Returns the harmonic mean |

HEX2BIN | Eng | Converts a hexadecimal number to binary |

HEX2DEC | Eng | Converts a hexadecimal number to decimal |

HEX2OCT | Eng | Converts a hexadecimal number to octal |

HLOOKUP | Lookup Ref | Looks in the top row of an array and returns the value of the indicated cell |

HOUR | Date and time | Converts a serial number to an hour |

HSTACK | Lookup Ref | Appends arrays horizontally and in sequence to return a larger array |

HYPERLINK | Lookup Ref | Creates a shortcut or jump that opens a document stored on a network server, an intranet, or the Internet |

HYPGEOM.DIST | Statistical | Returns the hypergeometric distribution |

HYPGEOMDIST | Compatibility | Returns the hypergeometric distribution |

IF | Logical | Specifies a logical test to perform |

IFERROR | Logical | Returns a value you specify if a formula evaluates to an error; otherwise, returns the result of the formula |

IFNA | Logical | Returns the value you specify if the expression resolves to #N/A, otherwise returns the result of the expression |

IFS | Logical | Checks whether one or more conditions are met and returns a value that corresponds to the first TRUE condition. |

IMABS | Eng | Returns the absolute value (modulus) of a complex number |

IMAGE | Lookup Ref | Returns an image from a given source |

IMAGINARY | Eng | Returns the imaginary coefficient of a complex number |

IMARGUMENT | Eng | Returns the argument theta, an angle expressed in radians |

IMCONJUGATE | Eng | Returns the complex conjugate of a complex number |

IMCOS | Eng | Returns the cosine of a complex number |

IMCOSH | Eng | Returns the hyperbolic cosine of a complex number |

IMCOT | Eng | Returns the cotangent of a complex number |

IMCSC | Eng | Returns the cosecant of a complex number |

IMCSCH | Eng | Returns the hyperbolic cosecant of a complex number |

IMDIV | Eng | Returns the quotient of two complex numbers |

IMEXP | Eng | Returns the exponential of a complex number |

IMLN | Eng | Returns the natural logarithm of a complex number |

IMLOG10 | Eng | Returns the base-10 logarithm of a complex number |

IMLOG2 | Eng | Returns the base-2 logarithm of a complex number |

IMPOWER | Eng | Returns a complex number raised to an integer power |

IMPRODUCT | Eng | Returns the product of complex numbers |

IMREAL | Eng | Returns the real coefficient of a complex number |

IMSEC | Eng | Returns the secant of a complex number |

IMSECH | Eng | Returns the hyperbolic secant of a complex number |

IMSIN | Eng | Returns the sine of a complex number |

IMSINH | Eng | Returns the hyperbolic sine of a complex number |

IMSQRT | Eng | Returns the square root of a complex number |

IMSUB | Eng | Returns the difference between two complex numbers |

IMSUM | Eng | Returns the sum of complex numbers |

IMTAN | Eng | Returns the tangent of a complex number |

INDEX | Lookup Ref | Uses an index to choose a value from a reference or array |

INDIRECT | Lookup Ref | Returns a reference indicated by a text value |

INFO | Information | Returns Info about the current operating environment |

INT | Math Trig | Rounds a number down to the nearest integer |

INTERCEPT | Statistical | Returns the intercept of the linear regression line |

INTRATE | Financial | Returns the interest rate for a fully invested security |

IPMT | Financial | Returns the interest payment for an investment for a given period |

IRR | Financial | Returns the internal rate of return for a series of cash flows |

ISBLANK | Information | Returns TRUE if the value is blank |

ISERR | Information | Returns TRUE if the value is any error value except #N/A |

ISERROR | Information | Returns TRUE if the value is any error value |

ISEVEN | Information | Returns TRUE if the number is even |

ISFORMULA | Information | Returns TRUE if there is a reference to a cell that contains a formula |

ISLOGICAL | Information | Returns TRUE if the value is a logical value |

ISNA | Information | Returns TRUE if the value is the #N/A error value |

ISNONTEXT | Information | Returns TRUE if the value is not text |

ISNUMBER | Information | Returns TRUE if the value is a number |

ISO.CEILING | Math Trig | Returns a number that is rounded up to the nearest integer or to the nearest multiple of significance |

ISODD | Information | Returns TRUE if the number is odd |

ISOMITTED | Information | Checks whether the value in a LAMBDA is missing and returns TRUE or FALSE |

ISOWEEKNUM | Date and time | Returns the number of the ISO week number of the year for a given date |

ISPMT | Financial | Calculates the interest paid during a specific period of an investment |

ISREF | Information | Returns TRUE if the value is a reference |

ISTEXT | Information | Returns TRUE if the value is text |

JIS | Text | Changes half-width (single-byte) English letters or katakana within a character string to full-width (double-byte) characters |

KURT | Statistical | Returns the kurtosis of a data set |

LAMBDA | Logical | Create custom, reusable functions and call them by a friendly name |

LARGE | Statistical | Returns the k-th largest value in a data set |

LCM | Math Trig | Returns the least common multiple |

LEFT, LEFTB | Text | Returns the leftmost characters from a text value |

LEN, LENB | Text | Returns the number of characters in a text string |

LET | Logical | Assigns names to calculation results |

LINEST | Statistical | Returns the parameters of a linear trend |

LN | Math Trig | Returns the natural logarithm of a number |

LOG | Math Trig | Returns the logarithm of a number to a specified base |

LOG10 | Math Trig | Returns the base-10 logarithm of a number |

LOGEST | Statistical | Returns the parameters of an exponential trend |

LOGINV | Compatibility | Returns the inverse of the lognormal cumulative distribution |

LOGNORM.DIST | Statistical | Returns the cumulative lognormal distribution |

LOGNORM.INV | Statistical | Returns the inverse of the lognormal cumulative distribution |

LOGNORMDIST | Compatibility | Returns the cumulative lognormal distribution |

LOOKUP | Lookup Ref | Looks up values in a vector or array |

LOWER | Text | Converts text to lowercase |

MAKEARRAY | Logical | Returns a calculated array of a specified row and column size, by applying a LAMBDA |

MAP | Logical | Returns an array formed by mapping each value in the array(s) to a new value by applying a LAMBDA to create a new value |

MATCH | Lookup Ref | Looks up values in a reference or array |

MAX | Statistical | Returns the maximum value in a list of arguments |

MAXA | Statistical | Returns the maximum value in a list of arguments, including numbers, text, and logical values |

MAXIFS | Statistical | Returns the maximum value among cells specified by a given set of conditions or criteria |

MDETERM | Math Trig | Returns the matrix determinant of an array |

MDURATION | Financial | Returns the Macauley modified duration for a security with an assumed par value of $100 |

MEDIAN | Statistical | Returns the median of the given numbers |

MID, MIDB | Text | Returns a specific number of characters from a text string starting at the position you specify |

MIN | Statistical | Returns the minimum value in a list of arguments |

MINA | Statistical | Returns the smallest value in a list of arguments, including numbers, text, and logical values |

MINIFS | Statistical | Returns the minimum value among cells specified by a given set of conditions or criteria. |

MINUTE | Date and time | Converts a serial number to a minute |

MINVERSE | Math Trig | Returns the matrix inverse of an array |

MIRR | Financial | Returns the internal rate of return where positive and negative cash flows are financed at different rates |

MMULT | Math Trig | Returns the matrix product of two arrays |

MOD | Math Trig | Returns the remainder from division |

MODE | Compatibility | Returns the most common value in a data set |

MODE.MULT | Statistical | Returns a vertical array of the most frequently occurring, or repetitive values in an array or range of data |

MODE.SNGL | Statistical | Returns the most common value in a data set |

MONTH | Date and time | Converts a serial number to a month |

MROUND | Math Trig | Returns a number rounded to the desired multiple |

MULTINOMIAL | Math Trig | Returns the multinomial of a set of numbers |

MUNIT | Math Trig | Returns the unit matrix or the specified dimension |

N | Information | Returns a value converted to a number |

NA | Information | Returns the error value #N/A |

NEGBINOM.DIST | Statistical | Returns the negative binomial distribution |

NEGBINOMDIST | Compatibility | Returns the negative binomial distribution |

NETWORKDAYS | Date and time | Returns the number of whole workdays between two dates |

NETWORKDAYS.INTL | Date and time | Returns the number of whole workdays between two dates using parameters to indicate which and how many days are weekend days |

NOMINAL | Financial | Returns the annual nominal interest rate |

NORM.DIST | Statistical | Returns the normal cumulative distribution |

NORM.INV | Compatibility | Returns the inverse of the normal cumulative distribution |

NORM.S.DIST | Statistical | Returns the standard normal cumulative distribution |

NORM.S.INV | Statistical | Returns the inverse of the standard normal cumulative distribution |

NORMDIST | Compatibility | Returns the normal cumulative distribution |

NORMINV | Statistical | Returns the inverse of the normal cumulative distribution |

NORMSDIST | Compatibility | Returns the standard normal cumulative distribution |

NORMSINV | Compatibility | Returns the inverse of the standard normal cumulative distribution |

NOT | Logical | Reverses the logic of its argument |

NOW | Date and time | Returns the serial number of the current date and time |

NPER | Financial | Returns the number of periods for an investment |

NPV | Financial | Returns the net present value of an investment based on a series of periodic cash flows and a discount rate |

NUMBERVALUE | Text | Converts text to number in a locale-independent manner |

OCT2BIN | Eng | Converts an octal number to binary |

OCT2DEC | Eng | Converts an octal number to decimal |

OCT2HEX | Eng | Converts an octal number to hexadecimal |

ODD | Math Trig | Rounds a number up to the nearest odd integer |

ODDFPRICE | Financial | Returns the price per $100 face value of a security with an odd first period |

ODDFYIELD | Financial | Returns the yield of a security with an odd first period |

ODDLPRICE | Financial | Returns the price per $100 face value of a security with an odd last period |

ODDLYIELD | Financial | Returns the yield of a security with an odd last period |

OFFSET | Lookup Ref | Returns a reference offset from a given reference |

OR | Logical | Returns TRUE if any argument is TRUE |

PDURATION | Financial | Returns the number of periods required by an investment to reach a specified value |

PEARSON | Statistical | Returns the Pearson product moment correlation coefficient |

PERCENTILE | Compatibility | Returns the k-th percentile of values in a range |

PERCENTILE.EXC | Statistical | Returns the k-th percentile of values in a range, where k is in the range 0..1, exclusive |

PERCENTILE.INC | Statistical | Returns the k-th percentile of values in a range |

PERCENTRANK | Compatibility | Returns the percentage rank of a value in a data set |

PERCENTRANK.EXC | Statistical | Returns the rank of a value in a data set as a percentage (0..1, exclusive) of the data set |

PERCENTRANK.INC | Statistical | Returns the percentage rank of a value in a data set |

PERMUT | Statistical | Returns the number of permutations for a given number of objects |

PERMUTATIONA | Statistical | Returns the number of permutations for a given number of objects (with repetitions) that can be selected from the total objects |

PHI | Statistical | Returns the value of the density function for a standard normal distribution |

PHONETIC | Text | Extracts the phonetic (furigana) characters from a text string |

PI | Math Trig | Returns the value of pi |

PMT | Financial | Returns the periodic payment for an annuity |

POISSON | Compatibility | Returns the Poisson distribution |

POISSON.DIST | Statistical | Returns the Poisson distribution |

POWER | Math Trig | Returns the result of a number raised to a power |

PPMT | Financial | Returns the payment on the principal for an investment for a given period |

PRICE | Financial | Returns the price per $100 face value of a security that pays periodic interest |

PRICEDISC | Financial | Returns the price per $100 face value of a discounted security |

PRICEMAT | Financial | Returns the price per $100 face value of a security that pays interest at maturity |

PROB | Statistical | Returns the probability that values in a range are between two limits |

PRODUCT | Math Trig | Multiplies its arguments |

PROPER | Text | Capitalizes the first letter in each word of a text value |

PV | Financial | Returns the present value of an investment |

QUARTILE | Compatibility | Returns the quartile of a data set |

QUARTILE.EXC | Statistical | Returns the quartile of the data set, based on percentile values from 0..1, exclusive |

QUARTILE.INC | Statistical | Returns the quartile of a data set |

QUOTIENT | Math Trig | Returns the integer portion of a division |

RADIANS | Math Trig | Converts degrees to radians |

RAND | Math Trig | Returns a random number between 0 and 1 |

RANDARRAY | Math Trig | Returns an array of random numbers between 0 and 1. However, you can specify the number of rows and columns to fill, minimum and maximum values, and whether to return whole numbers or decimal values. |

RANDBETWEEN | Math Trig | Returns a random number between the numbers you specify |

RANK | Compatibility | Returns the rank of a number in a list of numbers |

RANK.AVG | Statistical | Returns the rank of a number in a list of numbers |

RANK.EQ | Statistical | Returns the rank of a number in a list of numbers |

RATE | Financial | Returns the interest rate per period of an annuity |

RECEIVED | Financial | Returns the amount received at maturity for a fully invested security |

REDUCE | Logical | Reduces an array to an accumulated value by applying a LAMBDA to each value and returning the total value in the accumulator |

REGISTER.ID | Add-in and Automation | Returns the register ID of the specified dynamic link library (DLL) or code resource that has been previously registered |

REPLACE, REPLACEB | Text | Replaces characters within text |

REPT | Text | Repeats text a given number of times |

RIGHT, RIGHTB | Text | Returns the rightmost characters from a text value |

ROMAN | Math Trig | Converts an arabic numeral to roman, as text |

ROUND | Math Trig | Rounds a number to a specified number of digits |

ROUNDDOWN | Math Trig | Rounds a number down, toward zero |

ROUNDUP | Math Trig | Rounds a number up, away from zero |

ROW | Lookup Ref | Returns the row number of a reference |

ROWS | Lookup Ref | Returns the number of rows in a reference |

RRI | Financial | Returns an equivalent interest rate for the growth of an investment |

RSQ | Statistical | Returns the square of the Pearson product moment correlation coefficient |

RTD | Lookup Ref | Retrieves real-time data from a program that supports COM automation |

SCAN | Logical | Scans an array by applying a LAMBDA to each value and returns an array that has each intermediate value |

SEARCH, SEARCHB | Text | Finds one text value within another (not case-sensitive) |

SEC | Math Trig | Returns the secant of an angle |

SECH | Math Trig | Returns the hyperbolic secant of an angle |

SECOND | Date and time | Converts a serial number to a second |

SEQUENCE | Math Trig | Generates a list of sequential numbers in an array, such as 1, 2, 3, 4 |

SERIESSUM | Math Trig | Returns the sum of a power series based on the formula |

SHEET | Information | Returns the sheet number of the referenced sheet |

SHEETS | Information | Returns the number of sheets in a reference |

SIGN | Math Trig | Returns the sign of a number |

SIN | Math Trig | Returns the sine of the given angle |

SINH | Math Trig | Returns the hyperbolic sine of a number |

SKEW | Statistical | Returns the skewness of a distribution |

SKEW.P | Statistical | Returns the skewness of a distribution based on a population; a characterization of the degree of asymmetry of a distribution around its mean |

SLN | Financial | Returns the straight-line depreciation of an asset for one period |

SLOPE | Statistical | Returns the slope of the linear regression line |

SMALL | Statistical | Returns the k-th smallest value in a data set |

SORT | Lookup Ref | Sorts the contents of a range or array |

SORTBY | Lookup Ref | Sorts the contents of a range or array based on the values in a corresponding range or array |

SQRT | Math Trig | Returns a positive square root |

SQRTPI | Math Trig | Returns the square root of (number * pi) |

STANDARDIZE | Statistical | Returns a normalized value |

STDEV | Compatibility | Estimates standard deviation based on a sample |

STDEV.P | Statistical | Calculates standard deviation based on the entire population |

STDEV.S | Statistical | Estimates standard deviation based on a sample |

STDEVA | Statistical | Estimates standard deviation based on a sample, including numbers, text, and logical values |

STDEVP | Compatibility | Calculates standard deviation based on the entire population |

STDEVPA | Statistical | Calculates standard deviation based on the entire population, including numbers, text, and logical values |

STEYX | Statistical | Returns the standard error of the predicted y-value for each x in the regression |

STOCKHISTORY | Financial | Retrieves historical data about a financial instrument |

SUBSTITUTE | Text | Substitutes new text for old text in a text string |

SUBTOTAL | Math Trig | Returns a subtotal in a list or database |

SUM | Math Trig | Adds its arguments |

SUMIF | Math Trig | Adds the cells specified by a given criteria |

SUMIFS | Math Trig | Adds the cells in a range that meet multiple criteria |

SUMPRODUCT | Math Trig | Returns the sum of the products of corresponding array components |

SUMSQ | Math Trig | Returns the sum of the squares of the arguments |

SUMX2MY2 | Math Trig | Returns the sum of the difference of squares of corresponding values in two arrays |

SUMX2PY2 | Math Trig | Returns the sum of the sum of squares of corresponding values in two arrays |

SUMXMY2 | Math Trig | Returns the sum of squares of differences of corresponding values in two arrays |

SWITCH | Logical | Evaluates an expression against a list of values and returns the result corresponding to the first matching value. If there is no match, an optional default value may be returned. |

SYD | Financial | Returns the sum-of-years' digits depreciation of an asset for a specified period |

T | Text | Converts its arguments to text |

T.DIST | Statistical | Returns the Percentage Points (probability) for the Student t-distribution |

T.DIST.2T | Statistical | Returns the Percentage Points (probability) for the Student t-distribution |

T.DIST.RT | Statistical | Returns the Student's t-distribution |

T.INV | Statistical | Returns the t-value of the Student's t-distribution as a function of the probability and the degrees of freedom |

T.INV.2T | Statistical | Returns the inverse of the Student's t-distribution |

T.TEST | Statistical | Returns the probability associated with a Student's t-test |

TAKE | Lookup Ref | Returns a specified number of contiguous rows or columns from the start or end of an array |

TAN | Math Trig | Returns the tangent of a number |

TANH | Math Trig | Returns the hyperbolic tangent of a number |

TBILLEQ | Financial | Returns the bond-equivalent yield for a Treasury bill |

TBILLPRICE | Financial | Returns the price per $100 face value for a Treasury bill |

TBILLYIELD | Financial | Returns the yield for a Treasury bill |

TDIST | Compatibility | Returns the Student's t-distribution |

TEXT | Text | Formats a number and converts it to text |

TEXTAFTER | Text | Returns text after a specified delimiter |

TEXTBEFORE | Text | Returns text before a specified delimiter |

TEXTJOIN | Text | Combines the text from multiple ranges and/or strings, and includes a delimiter you specify between each text value that will be combined. If the delimiter is an empty text string, this function will effectively concatenate the ranges. |

TEXTSPLIT | Text | split text string into columns, based on delimiter characters |

TIME | Date and time | Returns the serial number of a particular time |

TIMEVALUE | Date and time | Converts a time in the form of text to a serial number |

TINV | Compatibility | Returns the inverse of the Student's t-distribution |

TOCOL | Lookup Ref | Returns the array in a single column |

TODAY | Date and time | Returns the serial number of today's date |

TOROW | Lookup Ref | Returns the array in a single row |

TRANSPOSE | Lookup Ref | Returns the transpose of an array |

TREND | Statistical | Returns values along a linear trend |

TRIM | Text | Removes spaces from text |

TRIMMEAN | Statistical | Returns the mean of the interior of a data set |

TRUE | Logical | Returns the logical value TRUE |

TRUNC | Math Trig | Truncates a number to an integer |

TTEST | Compatibility | Returns the probability associated with a Student's t-test |

TYPE | Information | Returns a number indicating the data type of a value |

UNICHAR | Text | Returns the Unicode character that is references by the given numeric value |

UNICODE | Text | Returns the number (code point) that corresponds to the first character of the text |

UNIQUE | Lookup Ref | Returns a list of unique values in a list or range |

UPPER | Text | Converts text to uppercase |

VALUE | Text | Converts a text argument to a number |

VALUETOTEXT | Text | Returns text from any specified value |

VAR | Compatibility | Estimates variance based on a sample |

VAR.P | Statistical | Calculates variance based on the entire population |

VAR.S | Statistical | Estimates variance based on a sample |

VARA | Statistical | Estimates variance based on a sample, including numbers, text, and logical values |

VARP | Compatibility | Calculates variance based on the entire population |

VARPA | Statistical | Calculates variance based on the entire population, including numbers, text, and logical values |

VDB | Financial | Returns the depreciation of an asset for a specified or partial period by using a declining balance method |

VLOOKUP | Lookup Ref | Looks in the first column of an array and moves across the row to return the value of a cell |

VSTACK | Lookup Ref | Appends arrays vertically and in sequence to return a larger array |

WEBSERVICE | Web | Returns data from a web service. |

WEEKDAY | Date and time | Converts a serial number to a day of the week |

WEEKNUM | Date and time | Converts a serial number to a number representing where the week falls numerically with a year |

WEIBULL | Compatibility | Calculates variance based on the entire population, including numbers, text, and logical values |

WEIBULL.DIST | Statistical | Returns the Weibull distribution |

WORKDAY | Date and time | Returns the serial number of the date before or after a specified number of workdays |

WORKDAY.INTL | Date and time | Returns the serial number of the date before or after a specified number of workdays using parameters to indicate which and how many days are weekend days |

WRAPCOLS | Lookup Ref | Wraps the provided row or column of values by columns after a specified number of elements |

WRAPROWS | Lookup Ref | Wraps the provided row or column of values by rows after a specified number of elements |

XIRR | Financial | Returns the internal rate of return for a schedule of cash flows that is not necessarily periodic |

XLOOKUP | Lookup Ref | Searches a range or an array, and returns an item corresponding to the first match it finds. If a match doesn't exist, then XLOOKUP can return the closest (approximate) match. |

XMATCH | Lookup Ref | Returns the relative position of an item in an array or range of cells. |

XNPV | Financial | Returns the net present value for a schedule of cash flows that is not necessarily periodic |

XOR | Logical | Returns a logical exclusive OR of all arguments |

YEAR | Date and time | Converts a serial number to a year |

YEARFRAC | Date and time | Returns the year fraction representing the number of whole days between start_date and end_date |

YIELD | Financial | Returns the yield on a security that pays periodic interest |

YIELDDISC | Financial | Returns the annual yield for a discounted security; for example, a Treasury bill |

YIELDMAT | Financial | Returns the annual yield of a security that pays interest at maturity |

Z.TEST | Statistical | Returns the one-tailed probability-value of a z-test |

ZTEST | Compatibility | Returns the one-tailed probability-value of a z-test |

## More Excel Function Links |

Last updated: March 6, 2024 4:00 PM