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Excel Functions Reference List & Videos

Find the Excel function you need in the interactive list below. Also, watch short Excel function videos, and find popular Excel function tutorials, here on the Contextures site.

Excel functions videos and reference list

7 Ways to Sum in Excel

The first Excel calculation that most people try is adding two or more numbers with the SUM function. After you have that skill mastered, you're ready to discover some of the other ways you can add things up in Excel.

For a quick overview of 7 different ways to sum numbers with Excel functions, you can watch this 9-minute video.

There are written steps and more videos on the How to Sum in Excel page, along with sample files to download for Excel skills practice..

7 Ways to Count in Excel

Another key calculation in Excel is counting things. For example, do you need to count numbers only, or do you want to count any type of data? How can you count things based on one or more criteria?

To see a quick overview of 7 ways to get a total count of cells in Excel, watch this short video.

There are written steps and more videos on the How to Count in Excel page, along with sample files to download for Excel skills practice.

Excel Lookup Functions

When you have to do a lookup in Excel, such as finding the price for a product, which is the best lookup function to use in Microsoft Excel?

If you're not sure, head to the Excel Lookup Functions Comparison page, to see an overview, and get advice. There are notes on these functions: XLOOKUP, VLOOKUP, HLOOKUP, LOOKUP, INDEX, MATCH, and OFFSET

For example, this video shows how to make a VLOOKUP formula that finds a product price. The written steps are on the Excel VLOOKUP Examples page, along with other videos, examples, and Excel files to download.

30 Functions in 30 Days

On my Contextures Blog, in January 2011, I posted tutorials for 30 functions in 30 days, and it was a fun experience! The lessons are still useful, because the functions haven't changed much (or at all!) since then.

All 30 functions are in the Text, Information, and Lookup categories, and the list included some of my favourite Excel functions, like:

You can go to the 30 Functions in 30 Days page, to see all the functions, and follow the links to read the blog posts and comments!

Interactive Excel Functions List

Below is an interactive list of all the Excel functions.

  • Click a heading cell, to sort by that column.
  • Change the number of items shown per page
  • Type in the Search box to filter the list.
  • Click the links for more information on a specific function.

Function

Category

Description

ABS Math Trig Returns the absolute value of a number
ACCRINT Financial Returns the accrued interest for a security that pays periodic interest
ACCRINTM Financial Returns the accrued interest for a security that pays interest at maturity
ACOS Math Trig Returns the arccosine of a number
ACOSH Math Trig Returns the inverse hyperbolic cosine of a number
ACOT Math Trig Returns the arccotangent of a number
ACOTH Math Trig Returns the hyperbolic arccotangent of a number
ADDRESS Lookup Ref Returns a reference as text to a single cell in a worksheet
AGGREGATE Math Trig Returns an aggregate in a list or database
AMORDEGRC Financial Returns the depreciation for each accounting period by using a depreciation coefficient
AMORLINC Financial Returns the depreciation for each accounting period
AND Logical Returns TRUE if all of its arguments are TRUE
ARABIC Math Trig Converts a Roman number to Arabic, as a number
AREAS Lookup Ref Returns the number of areas in a reference
ARRAYTOTEXT Text Returns an array of text values from any specified range
ASC Text Changes full-width (double-byte) English letters or katakana within a character string to half-width (single-byte) characters
ASIN Math Trig Returns the arcsine of a number
ASINH Math Trig Returns the inverse hyperbolic sine of a number
ATAN Math Trig Returns the arctangent of a number
ATAN2 Math Trig Returns the arctangent from x- and y-coordinates
ATANH Math Trig Returns the inverse hyperbolic tangent of a number
AVEDEV Statistical Returns the average of the absolute deviations of data points from their mean
AVERAGE Statistical Returns the average of its arguments
AVERAGEA Statistical Returns the average of its arguments, including numbers, text, and logical values
AVERAGEIF Statistical Returns the average (arithmetic mean) of all the cells in a range that meet a given criteria
AVERAGEIFS Statistical Returns the average (arithmetic mean) of all cells that meet multiple criteria.
BAHTTEXT Text Converts a number to text, using the ß (baht) currency format
BASE Math Trig Converts a number into a text representation with the given radix (base)
BESSELI Eng Returns the modified Bessel function In(x)
BESSELJ Eng Returns the Bessel function Jn(x)
BESSELK Eng Returns the modified Bessel function Kn(x)
BESSELY Eng Returns the Bessel function Yn(x)
BETA.DIST Statistical Returns the beta cumulative distribution function
BETA.INV Statistical Returns the inverse of the cumulative distribution function for a specified beta distribution
BETADIST Compatibility Returns the beta cumulative distribution function
BETAINV Compatibility Returns the inverse of the cumulative distribution function for a specified beta distribution
BIN2DEC Eng Converts a binary number to decimal
BIN2HEX Eng Converts a binary number to hexadecimal
BIN2OCT Eng Converts a binary number to octal
BINOM.DIST Statistical Returns the individual term binomial distribution probability
BINOM.DIST.RANGE Statistical Returns the probability of a trial result using a binomial distribution
BINOM.INV Statistical Returns the smallest value for which the cumulative binomial distribution is less than or equal to a criterion value
BINOMDIST Compatibility Returns the individual term binomial distribution probability
BITAND Eng Returns a 'Bitwise And' of two numbers
BITLSHIFT Eng Returns a value number shifted left by shift_amount bits
BITOR Eng Returns a bitwise OR of 2 numbers
BITRSHIFT Eng Returns a value number shifted right by shift_amount bits
BITXOR Eng Returns a bitwise 'Exclusive Or' of two numbers
BYCOL Logical Applies a LAMBDA to each column and returns an array of the results
BYROW Logical Applies a LAMBDA to each row and returns an array of the results
CALL Add-in and Automation Calls a procedure in a dynamic link library or code resource
CEILING Compatibility Rounds a number to the nearest integer or to the nearest multiple of significance
CEILING.MATH Math Trig Rounds a number up, to the nearest integer or to the nearest multiple of significance
CEILING.PRECISE Math Trig Rounds a number the nearest integer or to the nearest multiple of significance. Regardless of the sign of the number, the number is rounded up.
CELL Information Returns Info about the formatting, location, or contents of a cell
CHAR Text Returns the character specified by the code number
CHIDIST Compatibility Returns the one-tailed probability of the chi-squared distribution
CHIINV Compatibility Returns the inverse of the one-tailed probability of the chi-squared distribution
CHISQ.DIST Statistical Returns the cumulative beta probability density function
CHISQ.DIST.RT Statistical Returns the one-tailed probability of the chi-squared distribution
CHISQ.INV Statistical Returns the cumulative beta probability density function
CHISQ.INV.RT Statistical Returns the inverse of the one-tailed probability of the chi-squared distribution
CHISQ.TEST Statistical Returns the test for independence
CHITEST Compatibility Returns the test for independence
CHOOSE Lookup Ref Chooses a value from a list of values
CHOOSECOLS Lookup Ref Returns the specified columns from an array
CHOOSEROWS Lookup Ref Returns the specified rows from an array
CLEAN Text Removes all nonprintable characters from text
CODE Text Returns a numeric code for the first character in a text string
COLUMN Lookup Ref Returns the column number of a reference
COLUMNS Lookup Ref Returns the number of columns in a reference
COMBIN Math Trig Returns the number of combinations for a given number of objects
COMBINA Math Trig Returns the number of combinations with repetitions for a given number of items
COMPLEX Eng Converts real and imaginary coefficients into a complex number
CONCAT Text Combines the text from multiple ranges and/or strings, but it doesn't provide the delimiter or IgnoreEmpty arguments.
CONCATENATE Text Joins several text items into one text item
CONFIDENCE Compatibility Returns the confidence interval for a population mean
CONFIDENCE.NORM Statistical Returns the confidence interval for a population mean
CONFIDENCE.T Statistical Returns the confidence interval for a population mean, using a Student's t distribution
CONVERT Eng Converts a number from one measurement system to another
CORREL Statistical Returns the correlation coefficient between two data sets
COS Math Trig Returns the cosine of a number
COSH Math Trig Returns the hyperbolic cosine of a number
COT Math Trig Returns the hyperbolic cosine of a number
COTH Math Trig Returns the cotangent of an angle
COUNT Statistical Counts how many numbers are in the list of arguments
COUNTA Statistical Counts how many values are in the list of arguments
COUNTBLANK Statistical Counts the number of blank cells within a range
COUNTIF Statistical Counts the number of cells within a range that meet the given criteria
COUNTIFS Statistical Counts the number of cells within a range that meet multiple criteria
COUPDAYBS Financial Returns the number of days from the beginning of the coupon period to the settlement date
COUPDAYS Financial Returns the number of days in the coupon period that contains the settlement date
COUPDAYSNC Financial Returns the number of days from the settlement date to the next coupon date
COUPNCD Financial Returns the next coupon date after the settlement date
COUPNUM Financial Returns the number of coupons payable between the settlement date and maturity date
COUPPCD Financial Returns the previous coupon date before the settlement date
COVAR Compatibility Returns covariance, the average of the products of paired deviations
COVARIANCE.P Statistical Returns covariance, the average of the products of paired deviations
COVARIANCE.S Statistical Returns the sample covariance, the average of the products deviations for each data point pair in two data sets
CRITBINOM Compatibility Available for backward compatibility. For new function, see BINOM.INV function
CSC Math Trig Returns the cosecant of an angle
CSCH Math Trig Returns the hyperbolic cosecant of an angle
CUBEKPIMEMBER Cube Returns a key performance indicator (KPI) name, property, and measure, and displays the name and property in the cell. A KPI is a quantifiable measurement, such as monthly gross profit or quarterly employee turnover, used to monitor an organization's performance.
CUBEMEMBER Cube Returns a member or tuple in a cube hierarchy. Use to validate that the member or tuple exists in the cube.
CUBEMEMBERPROPERTY Cube Returns the value of a member property in the cube. Use to validate that a member name exists within the cube and to return the specified property for this member.
CUBERANKEDMEMBER Cube Returns the nth, or ranked, member in a set. Use to return one or more elements in a set, such as the top sales performer or top 10 students.
CUBESET Cube Defines a calculated set of members or tuples by sending a set expression to the cube on the server, which creates the set, and then returns that set to Microsoft Office Excel.
CUBESETCOUNT Cube Returns the number of items in a set.
CUBEVALUE Cube Returns an aggregated value from a cube.
CUMIPMT Financial Returns the cumulative interest paid between two periods
CUMPRINC Financial Returns the cumulative principal paid on a loan between two periods
DATE Date and time Returns the serial number of a particular date
DATEDIF Date and time Calculates the number of days, months, or years between two dates. This function is useful in formulas where you need to calculate an age.
DATEVALUE Date and time Converts a date in the form of text to a serial number
DAVERAGE Database Returns the average of selected database entries
DAY Date and time Converts a serial number to a day of the month
DAYS Date and time Returns the number of days between two dates
DAYS360 Date and time Calculates the number of days between two dates based on a 360-day year
DB Financial Returns the depreciation of an asset for a specified period by using the fixed-declining balance method
DBCS Text Changes half-width (single-byte) English letters or katakana within a character string to full-width (double-byte) characters
DCOUNT Database Counts the cells that contain numbers in a database
DCOUNTA Database Counts nonblank cells in a database
DDB Financial Returns the depreciation of an asset for a specified period by using the double-declining balance method or some other method that you specify
DEC2BIN Eng Converts a decimal number to binary
DEC2HEX Eng Converts a decimal number to hexadecimal
DEC2OCT Eng Converts a decimal number to octal
DECIMAL Math Trig Converts a text representation of a number in a given base into a decimal number
DEGREES Math Trig Converts radians to degrees
DELTA Eng Tests whether two values are equal
DEVSQ Statistical Returns the sum of squares of deviations
DGET Database Extracts from a database a single record that matches the specified criteria
DISC Financial Returns the discount rate for a security
DMAX Database Returns the maximum value from selected database entries
DMIN Database Returns the minimum value from selected database entries
DOLLAR Text Converts a number to text, using the $ (dollar) currency format
DOLLARDE Financial Converts a dollar price, expressed as a fraction, into a dollar price, expressed as a decimal number
DOLLARFR Financial Converts a dollar price, expressed as a decimal number, into a dollar price, expressed as a fraction
DPRODUCT Database Multiplies the values in a particular field of records that match the criteria in a database
DROP Lookup Ref Excludes a specified number of rows or columns from the start or end of an array
DSTDEV Database Estimates the standard deviation based on a sample of selected database entries
DSTDEVP Database Calculates the standard deviation based on the entire population of selected database entries
DSUM Database Adds the numbers in the field column of records in the database that match the criteria
DURATION Financial Returns the annual duration of a security with periodic interest payments
DVAR Database Estimates variance based on a sample from selected database entries
DVARP Database Calculates variance based on the entire population of selected database entries
EDATE Date and time Returns the serial number of the date that is the indicated number of months before or after the start date
EFFECT Financial Returns the effective annual interest rate
ENCODEURL Web Returns a URL-encoded string
EOMONTH Date and time Returns the serial number of the last day of the month before or after a specified number of months
ERF Eng Returns the error function
ERF.PRECISE Eng Returns the error function
ERFC Eng Returns the complementary error function
ERFC.PRECISE Eng Returns the complementary ERF function integrated between x and infinity
ERROR.TYPE Information Returns a number corresponding to an error type
EUROCONVERT Add-in and Automation Converts a number to euros, converts a number from euros to a euro member currency, or converts a number from one euro member currency to another by using the euro as an intermediary (triangulation).
EVEN Math Trig Rounds a number up to the nearest even integer
EXACT Text Checks to see if two text values are identical
EXP Math Trig Returns e raised to the power of a given number
EXPAND Lookup Ref Expands or pads an array to specified row and column dimensions
EXPON.DIST Statistical Returns the exponential distribution
EXPONDIST Compatibility Returns the exponential distribution
F.DIST Statistical Returns the F probability distribution
F.DIST.RT Statistical Returns the F probability distribution
F.INV Statistical Returns the inverse of the F probability distribution
F.INV.RT Statistical Returns the inverse of the F probability distribution
F.TEST Statistical Returns the result of an F-test
FACT Math Trig Returns the factorial of a number
FACTDOUBLE Math Trig Returns the double factorial of a number
FALSE Logical Returns the logical value FALSE
FDIST Compatibility Returns the F probability distribution
FILTER Lookup Ref Filters a range of data based on criteria you define
FILTERXML Web Returns specific data from the XML content by using the specified XPath
FIND, FINDB Text Finds one text value within another (case-sensitive)
FINV Compatibility Returns the inverse of the F probability distribution
FISHER Statistical Returns the Fisher transformation
FISHERINV Statistical Returns the inverse of the Fisher transformation
FIXED Text Formats a number as text with a fixed number of decimals
FLOOR Compatibility Rounds a number down, toward zero
FLOOR.MATH Math Trig Rounds a number down, to the nearest integer or to the nearest multiple of significance
FLOOR.PRECISE Math Trig Rounds a number the nearest integer or to the nearest multiple of significance. Regardless of the sign of the number, the number is rounded up.
FORECAST Statistical Returns a value along a linear trend
FORECAST.ETS Statistical Returns a future value based on existing (historical) values by using the AAA version of the Exponential Smoothing (ETS) algorithm
FORECAST.ETS.CONFINT Statistical Returns a confidence interval for the forecast value at the specified target date
FORECAST.ETS. SEASONALITY Statistical Returns the length of the repetitive pattern Excel detects for the specified time series
FORECAST.ETS.STAT Statistical Returns a statistical value as a result of time series forecasting
FORECAST.LINEAR Statistical Returns a future value based on existing values
FORMULATEXT Lookup Ref Returns the formula at the given reference as text
FREQUENCY Statistical Returns a frequency distribution as a vertical array
FTEST Compatibility Returns the result of an F-test
FV Financial Returns the future value of an investment
FVSCHEDULE Financial Returns the future value of an initial principal after applying a series of compound interest rates
GAMMA Statistical Returns the Gamma function value
GAMMA.DIST Statistical Returns the gamma distribution
GAMMA.INV Statistical Returns the inverse of the gamma cumulative distribution
GAMMADIST Compatibility Returns the gamma distribution
GAMMAINV Compatibility Returns the inverse of the gamma cumulative distribution
GAMMALN Statistical Returns the natural logarithm of the gamma function, Γ(x)
GAMMALN.PRECISE Statistical Returns the natural logarithm of the gamma function, ?(x)
GAUSS Statistical Returns 0.5 less than the standard normal cumulative distribution
GCD Math Trig Returns the greatest common divisor
GEOMEAN Statistical Returns the geometric mean
GESTEP Eng Tests whether a number is greater than a threshold value
GETPIVOTDATA Lookup Ref Returns data stored in a PivotTable report
GROWTH Statistical Returns values along an exponential trend
HARMEAN Statistical Returns the harmonic mean
HEX2BIN Eng Converts a hexadecimal number to binary
HEX2DEC Eng Converts a hexadecimal number to decimal
HEX2OCT Eng Converts a hexadecimal number to octal
HLOOKUP Lookup Ref Looks in the top row of an array and returns the value of the indicated cell
HOUR Date and time Converts a serial number to an hour
HSTACK Lookup Ref Appends arrays horizontally and in sequence to return a larger array
HYPERLINK Lookup Ref Creates a shortcut or jump that opens a document stored on a network server, an intranet, or the Internet
HYPGEOM.DIST Statistical Returns the hypergeometric distribution
HYPGEOMDIST Compatibility Returns the hypergeometric distribution
IF Logical Specifies a logical test to perform
IFERROR Logical Returns a value you specify if a formula evaluates to an error; otherwise, returns the result of the formula
IFNA Logical Returns the value you specify if the expression resolves to #N/A, otherwise returns the result of the expression
IFS Logical Checks whether one or more conditions are met and returns a value that corresponds to the first TRUE condition.
IMABS Eng Returns the absolute value (modulus) of a complex number
IMAGE Lookup Ref Returns an image from a given source
IMAGINARY Eng Returns the imaginary coefficient of a complex number
IMARGUMENT Eng Returns the argument theta, an angle expressed in radians
IMCONJUGATE Eng Returns the complex conjugate of a complex number
IMCOS Eng Returns the cosine of a complex number
IMCOSH Eng Returns the hyperbolic cosine of a complex number
IMCOT Eng Returns the cotangent of a complex number
IMCSC Eng Returns the cosecant of a complex number
IMCSCH Eng Returns the hyperbolic cosecant of a complex number
IMDIV Eng Returns the quotient of two complex numbers
IMEXP Eng Returns the exponential of a complex number
IMLN Eng Returns the natural logarithm of a complex number
IMLOG10 Eng Returns the base-10 logarithm of a complex number
IMLOG2 Eng Returns the base-2 logarithm of a complex number
IMPOWER Eng Returns a complex number raised to an integer power
IMPRODUCT Eng Returns the product of complex numbers
IMREAL Eng Returns the real coefficient of a complex number
IMSEC Eng Returns the secant of a complex number
IMSECH Eng Returns the hyperbolic secant of a complex number
IMSIN Eng Returns the sine of a complex number
IMSINH Eng Returns the hyperbolic sine of a complex number
IMSQRT Eng Returns the square root of a complex number
IMSUB Eng Returns the difference between two complex numbers
IMSUM Eng Returns the sum of complex numbers
IMTAN Eng Returns the tangent of a complex number
INDEX Lookup Ref Uses an index to choose a value from a reference or array
INDIRECT Lookup Ref Returns a reference indicated by a text value
INFO Information Returns Info about the current operating environment
INT Math Trig Rounds a number down to the nearest integer
INTERCEPT Statistical Returns the intercept of the linear regression line
INTRATE Financial Returns the interest rate for a fully invested security
IPMT Financial Returns the interest payment for an investment for a given period
IRR Financial Returns the internal rate of return for a series of cash flows
ISBLANK Information Returns TRUE if the value is blank
ISERR Information Returns TRUE if the value is any error value except #N/A
ISERROR Information Returns TRUE if the value is any error value
ISEVEN Information Returns TRUE if the number is even
ISFORMULA Information Returns TRUE if there is a reference to a cell that contains a formula
ISLOGICAL Information Returns TRUE if the value is a logical value
ISNA Information Returns TRUE if the value is the #N/A error value
ISNONTEXT Information Returns TRUE if the value is not text
ISNUMBER Information Returns TRUE if the value is a number
ISO.CEILING Math Trig Returns a number that is rounded up to the nearest integer or to the nearest multiple of significance
ISODD Information Returns TRUE if the number is odd
ISOMITTED Information Checks whether the value in a LAMBDA is missing and returns TRUE or FALSE
ISOWEEKNUM Date and time Returns the number of the ISO week number of the year for a given date
ISPMT Financial Calculates the interest paid during a specific period of an investment
ISREF Information Returns TRUE if the value is a reference
ISTEXT Information Returns TRUE if the value is text
JIS Text Changes half-width (single-byte) English letters or katakana within a character string to full-width (double-byte) characters
KURT Statistical Returns the kurtosis of a data set
LAMBDA Logical Create custom, reusable functions and call them by a friendly name
LARGE Statistical Returns the k-th largest value in a data set
LCM Math Trig Returns the least common multiple
LEFT, LEFTB Text Returns the leftmost characters from a text value
LEN, LENB Text Returns the number of characters in a text string
LET Logical Assigns names to calculation results
LINEST Statistical Returns the parameters of a linear trend
LN Math Trig Returns the natural logarithm of a number
LOG Math Trig Returns the logarithm of a number to a specified base
LOG10 Math Trig Returns the base-10 logarithm of a number
LOGEST Statistical Returns the parameters of an exponential trend
LOGINV Compatibility Returns the inverse of the lognormal cumulative distribution
LOGNORM.DIST Statistical Returns the cumulative lognormal distribution
LOGNORM.INV Statistical Returns the inverse of the lognormal cumulative distribution
LOGNORMDIST Compatibility Returns the cumulative lognormal distribution
LOOKUP Lookup Ref Looks up values in a vector or array
LOWER Text Converts text to lowercase
MAKEARRAY Logical Returns a calculated array of a specified row and column size, by applying a LAMBDA
MAP Logical Returns an array formed by mapping each value in the array(s) to a new value by applying a LAMBDA to create a new value
MATCH Lookup Ref Looks up values in a reference or array
MAX Statistical Returns the maximum value in a list of arguments
MAXA Statistical Returns the maximum value in a list of arguments, including numbers, text, and logical values
MAXIFS Statistical Returns the maximum value among cells specified by a given set of conditions or criteria
MDETERM Math Trig Returns the matrix determinant of an array
MDURATION Financial Returns the Macauley modified duration for a security with an assumed par value of $100
MEDIAN Statistical Returns the median of the given numbers
MID, MIDB Text Returns a specific number of characters from a text string starting at the position you specify
MIN Statistical Returns the minimum value in a list of arguments
MINA Statistical Returns the smallest value in a list of arguments, including numbers, text, and logical values
MINIFS Statistical Returns the minimum value among cells specified by a given set of conditions or criteria.
MINUTE Date and time Converts a serial number to a minute
MINVERSE Math Trig Returns the matrix inverse of an array
MIRR Financial Returns the internal rate of return where positive and negative cash flows are financed at different rates
MMULT Math Trig Returns the matrix product of two arrays
MOD Math Trig Returns the remainder from division
MODE Compatibility Returns the most common value in a data set
MODE.MULT Statistical Returns a vertical array of the most frequently occurring, or repetitive values in an array or range of data
MODE.SNGL Statistical Returns the most common value in a data set
MONTH Date and time Converts a serial number to a month
MROUND Math Trig Returns a number rounded to the desired multiple
MULTINOMIAL Math Trig Returns the multinomial of a set of numbers
MUNIT Math Trig Returns the unit matrix or the specified dimension
N Information Returns a value converted to a number
NA Information Returns the error value #N/A
NEGBINOM.DIST Statistical Returns the negative binomial distribution
NEGBINOMDIST Compatibility Returns the negative binomial distribution
NETWORKDAYS Date and time Returns the number of whole workdays between two dates
NETWORKDAYS.INTL Date and time Returns the number of whole workdays between two dates using parameters to indicate which and how many days are weekend days
NOMINAL Financial Returns the annual nominal interest rate
NORM.DIST Statistical Returns the normal cumulative distribution
NORM.INV Compatibility Returns the inverse of the normal cumulative distribution
NORM.S.DIST Statistical Returns the standard normal cumulative distribution
NORM.S.INV Statistical Returns the inverse of the standard normal cumulative distribution
NORMDIST Compatibility Returns the normal cumulative distribution
NORMINV Statistical Returns the inverse of the normal cumulative distribution
NORMSDIST Compatibility Returns the standard normal cumulative distribution
NORMSINV Compatibility Returns the inverse of the standard normal cumulative distribution
NOT Logical Reverses the logic of its argument
NOW Date and time Returns the serial number of the current date and time
NPER Financial Returns the number of periods for an investment
NPV Financial Returns the net present value of an investment based on a series of periodic cash flows and a discount rate
NUMBERVALUE Text Converts text to number in a locale-independent manner
OCT2BIN Eng Converts an octal number to binary
OCT2DEC Eng Converts an octal number to decimal
OCT2HEX Eng Converts an octal number to hexadecimal
ODD Math Trig Rounds a number up to the nearest odd integer
ODDFPRICE Financial Returns the price per $100 face value of a security with an odd first period
ODDFYIELD Financial Returns the yield of a security with an odd first period
ODDLPRICE Financial Returns the price per $100 face value of a security with an odd last period
ODDLYIELD Financial Returns the yield of a security with an odd last period
OFFSET Lookup Ref Returns a reference offset from a given reference
OR Logical Returns TRUE if any argument is TRUE
PDURATION Financial Returns the number of periods required by an investment to reach a specified value
PEARSON Statistical Returns the Pearson product moment correlation coefficient
PERCENTILE Compatibility Returns the k-th percentile of values in a range
PERCENTILE.EXC Statistical Returns the k-th percentile of values in a range, where k is in the range 0..1, exclusive
PERCENTILE.INC Statistical Returns the k-th percentile of values in a range
PERCENTRANK Compatibility Returns the percentage rank of a value in a data set
PERCENTRANK.EXC Statistical Returns the rank of a value in a data set as a percentage (0..1, exclusive) of the data set
PERCENTRANK.INC Statistical Returns the percentage rank of a value in a data set
PERMUT Statistical Returns the number of permutations for a given number of objects
PERMUTATIONA Statistical Returns the number of permutations for a given number of objects (with repetitions) that can be selected from the total objects
PHI Statistical Returns the value of the density function for a standard normal distribution
PHONETIC Text Extracts the phonetic (furigana) characters from a text string
PI Math Trig Returns the value of pi
PMT Financial Returns the periodic payment for an annuity
POISSON Compatibility Returns the Poisson distribution
POISSON.DIST Statistical Returns the Poisson distribution
POWER Math Trig Returns the result of a number raised to a power
PPMT Financial Returns the payment on the principal for an investment for a given period
PRICE Financial Returns the price per $100 face value of a security that pays periodic interest
PRICEDISC Financial Returns the price per $100 face value of a discounted security
PRICEMAT Financial Returns the price per $100 face value of a security that pays interest at maturity
PROB Statistical Returns the probability that values in a range are between two limits
PRODUCT Math Trig Multiplies its arguments
PROPER Text Capitalizes the first letter in each word of a text value
PV Financial Returns the present value of an investment
QUARTILE Compatibility Returns the quartile of a data set
QUARTILE.EXC Statistical Returns the quartile of the data set, based on percentile values from 0..1, exclusive
QUARTILE.INC Statistical Returns the quartile of a data set
QUOTIENT Math Trig Returns the integer portion of a division
RADIANS Math Trig Converts degrees to radians
RAND Math Trig Returns a random number between 0 and 1
RANDARRAY Math Trig Returns an array of random numbers between 0 and 1. However, you can specify the number of rows and columns to fill, minimum and maximum values, and whether to return whole numbers or decimal values.
RANDBETWEEN Math Trig Returns a random number between the numbers you specify
RANK Compatibility Returns the rank of a number in a list of numbers
RANK.AVG Statistical Returns the rank of a number in a list of numbers
RANK.EQ Statistical Returns the rank of a number in a list of numbers
RATE Financial Returns the interest rate per period of an annuity
RECEIVED Financial Returns the amount received at maturity for a fully invested security
REDUCE Logical Reduces an array to an accumulated value by applying a LAMBDA to each value and returning the total value in the accumulator
REGISTER.ID Add-in and Automation Returns the register ID of the specified dynamic link library (DLL) or code resource that has been previously registered
REPLACE, REPLACEB Text Replaces characters within text
REPT Text Repeats text a given number of times
RIGHT, RIGHTB Text Returns the rightmost characters from a text value
ROMAN Math Trig Converts an arabic numeral to roman, as text
ROUND Math Trig Rounds a number to a specified number of digits
ROUNDDOWN Math Trig Rounds a number down, toward zero
ROUNDUP Math Trig Rounds a number up, away from zero
ROW Lookup Ref Returns the row number of a reference
ROWS Lookup Ref Returns the number of rows in a reference
RRI Financial Returns an equivalent interest rate for the growth of an investment
RSQ Statistical Returns the square of the Pearson product moment correlation coefficient
RTD Lookup Ref Retrieves real-time data from a program that supports COM automation
SCAN Logical Scans an array by applying a LAMBDA to each value and returns an array that has each intermediate value
SEARCH, SEARCHB Text Finds one text value within another (not case-sensitive)
SEC Math Trig Returns the secant of an angle
SECH Math Trig Returns the hyperbolic secant of an angle
SECOND Date and time Converts a serial number to a second
SEQUENCE Math Trig Generates a list of sequential numbers in an array, such as 1, 2, 3, 4
SERIESSUM Math Trig Returns the sum of a power series based on the formula
SHEET Information Returns the sheet number of the referenced sheet
SHEETS Information Returns the number of sheets in a reference
SIGN Math Trig Returns the sign of a number
SIN Math Trig Returns the sine of the given angle
SINH Math Trig Returns the hyperbolic sine of a number
SKEW Statistical Returns the skewness of a distribution
SKEW.P Statistical Returns the skewness of a distribution based on a population; a characterization of the degree of asymmetry of a distribution around its mean
SLN Financial Returns the straight-line depreciation of an asset for one period
SLOPE Statistical Returns the slope of the linear regression line
SMALL Statistical Returns the k-th smallest value in a data set
SORT Lookup Ref Sorts the contents of a range or array
SORTBY Lookup Ref Sorts the contents of a range or array based on the values in a corresponding range or array
SQRT Math Trig Returns a positive square root
SQRTPI Math Trig Returns the square root of (number * pi)
STANDARDIZE Statistical Returns a normalized value
STDEV Compatibility Estimates standard deviation based on a sample
STDEV.P Statistical Calculates standard deviation based on the entire population
STDEV.S Statistical Estimates standard deviation based on a sample
STDEVA Statistical Estimates standard deviation based on a sample, including numbers, text, and logical values
STDEVP Compatibility Calculates standard deviation based on the entire population
STDEVPA Statistical Calculates standard deviation based on the entire population, including numbers, text, and logical values
STEYX Statistical Returns the standard error of the predicted y-value for each x in the regression
STOCKHISTORY Financial Retrieves historical data about a financial instrument
SUBSTITUTE Text Substitutes new text for old text in a text string
SUBTOTAL Math Trig Returns a subtotal in a list or database
SUM Math Trig Adds its arguments
SUMIF Math Trig Adds the cells specified by a given criteria
SUMIFS Math Trig Adds the cells in a range that meet multiple criteria
SUMPRODUCT Math Trig Returns the sum of the products of corresponding array components
SUMSQ Math Trig Returns the sum of the squares of the arguments
SUMX2MY2 Math Trig Returns the sum of the difference of squares of corresponding values in two arrays
SUMX2PY2 Math Trig Returns the sum of the sum of squares of corresponding values in two arrays
SUMXMY2 Math Trig Returns the sum of squares of differences of corresponding values in two arrays
SWITCH Logical Evaluates an expression against a list of values and returns the result corresponding to the first matching value. If there is no match, an optional default value may be returned.
SYD Financial Returns the sum-of-years' digits depreciation of an asset for a specified period
T Text Converts its arguments to text
T.DIST Statistical Returns the Percentage Points (probability) for the Student t-distribution
T.DIST.2T Statistical Returns the Percentage Points (probability) for the Student t-distribution
T.DIST.RT Statistical Returns the Student's t-distribution
T.INV Statistical Returns the t-value of the Student's t-distribution as a function of the probability and the degrees of freedom
T.INV.2T Statistical Returns the inverse of the Student's t-distribution
T.TEST Statistical Returns the probability associated with a Student's t-test
TAKE Lookup Ref Returns a specified number of contiguous rows or columns from the start or end of an array
TAN Math Trig Returns the tangent of a number
TANH Math Trig Returns the hyperbolic tangent of a number
TBILLEQ Financial Returns the bond-equivalent yield for a Treasury bill
TBILLPRICE Financial Returns the price per $100 face value for a Treasury bill
TBILLYIELD Financial Returns the yield for a Treasury bill
TDIST Compatibility Returns the Student's t-distribution
TEXT Text Formats a number and converts it to text
TEXTAFTER Text Returns text after a specified delimiter
TEXTBEFORE Text Returns text before a specified delimiter
TEXTJOIN Text Combines the text from multiple ranges and/or strings, and includes a delimiter you specify between each text value that will be combined. If the delimiter is an empty text string, this function will effectively concatenate the ranges.
TEXTSPLIT Text split text string into columns, based on delimiter characters
TIME Date and time Returns the serial number of a particular time
TIMEVALUE Date and time Converts a time in the form of text to a serial number
TINV Compatibility Returns the inverse of the Student's t-distribution
TOCOL Lookup Ref Returns the array in a single column
TODAY Date and time Returns the serial number of today's date
TOROW Lookup Ref Returns the array in a single row
TRANSPOSE Lookup Ref Returns the transpose of an array
TREND Statistical Returns values along a linear trend
TRIM Text Removes spaces from text
TRIMMEAN Statistical Returns the mean of the interior of a data set
TRUE Logical Returns the logical value TRUE
TRUNC Math Trig Truncates a number to an integer
TTEST Compatibility Returns the probability associated with a Student's t-test
TYPE Information Returns a number indicating the data type of a value
UNICHAR Text Returns the Unicode character that is references by the given numeric value
UNICODE Text Returns the number (code point) that corresponds to the first character of the text
UNIQUE Lookup Ref Returns a list of unique values in a list or range
UPPER Text Converts text to uppercase
VALUE Text Converts a text argument to a number
VALUETOTEXT Text Returns text from any specified value
VAR Compatibility Estimates variance based on a sample
VAR.P Statistical Calculates variance based on the entire population
VAR.S Statistical Estimates variance based on a sample
VARA Statistical Estimates variance based on a sample, including numbers, text, and logical values
VARP Compatibility Calculates variance based on the entire population
VARPA Statistical Calculates variance based on the entire population, including numbers, text, and logical values
VDB Financial Returns the depreciation of an asset for a specified or partial period by using a declining balance method
VLOOKUP Lookup Ref Looks in the first column of an array and moves across the row to return the value of a cell
VSTACK Lookup Ref Appends arrays vertically and in sequence to return a larger array
WEBSERVICE Web Returns data from a web service.
WEEKDAY Date and time Converts a serial number to a day of the week
WEEKNUM Date and time Converts a serial number to a number representing where the week falls numerically with a year
WEIBULL Compatibility Calculates variance based on the entire population, including numbers, text, and logical values
WEIBULL.DIST Statistical Returns the Weibull distribution
WORKDAY Date and time Returns the serial number of the date before or after a specified number of workdays
WORKDAY.INTL Date and time Returns the serial number of the date before or after a specified number of workdays using parameters to indicate which and how many days are weekend days
WRAPCOLS Lookup Ref Wraps the provided row or column of values by columns after a specified number of elements
WRAPROWS Lookup Ref Wraps the provided row or column of values by rows after a specified number of elements
XIRR Financial Returns the internal rate of return for a schedule of cash flows that is not necessarily periodic
XLOOKUP Lookup Ref Searches a range or an array, and returns an item corresponding to the first match it finds. If a match doesn't exist, then XLOOKUP can return the closest (approximate) match.
XMATCH Lookup Ref Returns the relative position of an item in an array or range of cells.
XNPV Financial Returns the net present value for a schedule of cash flows that is not necessarily periodic
XOR Logical Returns a logical exclusive OR of all arguments
YEAR Date and time Converts a serial number to a year
YEARFRAC Date and time Returns the year fraction representing the number of whole days between start_date and end_date
YIELD Financial Returns the yield on a security that pays periodic interest
YIELDDISC Financial Returns the annual yield for a discounted security; for example, a Treasury bill
YIELDMAT Financial Returns the annual yield of a security that pays interest at maturity
Z.TEST Statistical Returns the one-tailed probability-value of a z-test
ZTEST Compatibility Returns the one-tailed probability-value of a z-test

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Last updated: May 30, 2024 8:00 PM